Identify and engage stakeholders

Every change (and lets be frank, most everything involves change) requires understanding the individuals and groups that will participate or are affected – directly or indirectly.

Stakeholder analysis involves identifying the stakeholders and analyzing their various characteristics. These characteristics can include:

  • Level of authority within the organization and the domain of change
  • Attitudes toward or interest in the change
  • Attitudes towards the process
  • Level of decision-making authority

The goal of stakeholder analysis is to choose the best collaboration and communication approaches and to appropriately plan for stakeholder risks.

There are a variety of mechanisms for doing this and then mapping it out.

Start by brainstorming a list of the stakeholders by answering these questions:

  • Who will be impacted?
  • Who will be responsible or accountable
  • Who will have decision authority
  • Who can support
  • Who can obstruct
  • Who has been involved in something similar in the past?

Map these on a stakeholder matrix based on relative power and interest. This should be an iterative process.

Stakeholder Matrix
  • High influence/High Impact: these are key players and effort should be focused here to engage this group regularly
  • High influence/Low impact: these stakeholders have needs that should be met so engage and consult with them while also attempting to increase their level of interest.
  • Low influence/High impact: these stakeholders are supporters and potential goodwill ambassadors. Engage the group for their input and show interests in their needs.
  • Low influence/Low impact: the stakeholders can be kept informed using general communications. Additional targeted engagement may move them into the goodwill ambassador quadrant.

Another way to look at stakeholders is though an onion diagram.

A RACI is another popular way to look at stakeholders.

Once stakeholders are identified is is important to define how communication and engagement will achieved. There is usually no one sized fits all approach and it is important to meet the needs of each stakeholder group to ensure their interest and involvement is maintained. Some considerations include:

  • timing and frequency
  • location
  • tools
  • delivery methods (in-person or virtual)
  • preferences of the stakeholders
  • geographic considerations or impact

Document this in a communication plan, including:

  • what needs to be communicated
  • what is the appropriate delivery method
  • who the appropriate audience is
  • when communication should occur
  • frequency of communication
  • level of detail appropriate for the communication and stakeholder
  • level of formality of communication

Change Leader Competency

Luigi Sille on sharequality answered the June 2019 ASQ Roundtable Topic asks: “How can an individual become a successful Change Leader?” I’m a big fan of both blog carnivals and change management so here goes my answer, which is pretty similar to Luigi’s, and I would guess many other’s – just with my own spin.

A few things immediately come to mind.

Change management (and this is another great example of really meaning people change management) should be a competency on the ladder for any quality professional. It certainly needs to be a core area for anyone in a quality leadership position.

There are a lot of competency models out there for change management. Instead of pointing to just one, let’s try to find what they actually have in common. To do so it is important to set out the critical activities of change management:

  1. Define the change
  2. Ensure change delivers value
  3. Stakeholder strategy
  4. Communication and engagement
  5. Assess change impact
  6. Project management

In order to do these it is important to be able to provide education and learning support, facilitation, team effectiveness and understand how to sustain systems.

Change Management requires the seven skills we should all be developing: communication, content, context, emotional competence, teaching, connections, and an ethical compass

Change Management is part of the core for any quality leader, together with continuous improvement and knowledge management.

John Oliver on Medical Devices

I firmly believe that quality and ethics go hand-in-hand, and frankly it shakes some of my confidence on my profession when I read of organizations that supposedly subscribe to quality principles and standards (such as the ISOs) still not meeting the grade.

There are four widely accepted principles in biomedicine, which applies equally to medical devices and pharmaceuticals:

  • Principle of respect for autonomy
  • Principle of nonmaleficence
  • Principle of beneficence
  • Principle of justice

It seems a failure of ISO 13458 that adherence to this quality standard does not lead to results aligned to these four principles. It should surprise no one who knows me that this is one of the reasons I support strong regulations in this space.

Sources

  • Beauchamp T, Childress J. Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 7th  Edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013

SIPOC diagrams

I am a huge fan of a SIPOC which stands for suppliers-inputs-process-outputs-customers. A SIPOC diagram is a quick broad overview of all the elements of a process and serves as a great visual scope.

Blank SIPOC

Start with the process

Provide the key steps of the process in the middle column and briefly describe its key steps.  A SIPOC diagram is a high-level process map and is designed to get a birds-eye overview of the process. Do not include decision points or feedback loops.

Identify the outputs of the process

Focus on the key outputs of the process. In this step, write down the three or more main outputs. Use nouns for the most part and avoid categorizing your outputs into good or bad ones – that’s not the point of the diagram.

Identify the customers

List the people who benefit from the process. These don’t have to be the literal “customers.” E.g., if you are working on a diagram for an internal process, the “customers” are your coworkers. Think of who benefits from this process. Who would be upset if the process is not complete?

List the inputs for the process

List the inputs required for the process to function properly. Just like with every previous step, focus on the most important ones. Three to six main inputs should do.

Identify the suppliers of the inputs

List the suppliers based on what inputs the process uses. Be sure to mention any specific suppliers whose input has a direct influence on the output.

The template I use is here.

Examples of SIPOCs:

Situational Awareness and Expertise

One of the key aspects of being an expert is the capacity to apply situational awareness: the perception of relevant information, comprehension of their meaning and the projection to future events.

Developing this situational awareness is a critical part of problem-solving and we can map the 4Cs of trouble-shooting onto these three elements.

Perception

The ability to perceive important information is a critical first step to being able to problem-solve, and one that takes time to develop especially in the highly complex and demanding environments most of us operate in. Knowing which information is important and have an understanding of the many subtle cues to evaluate is one of the hallmarks of an expert. But even for experts it can be difficult, which is why building perceptual cues in our checklists, procedures and such is important.

Comprehension

From perception we can draw meaning and significance, allowing the expert to combine, interpret, store and retain information. Integrating multiple pieces of information to arrive at a determination of relevance.

Projection

Experts are able to project from current events to anticipate future events and their implications.

Model of situation awareness in dynamic decision making (Endsley, 1995)

Further Reading