WCQI Day 4

Last day of the conference and for the first session I present on “Knowledge Enables Change.”

Similar to my BOSCON talk, which was the beta so I think I covered things better in this one.

Expand Your Impact on the Culture of Quality by Kathy Lyall

Solid focus on both external and internal signifiers of quality culture. A little basic but very worth reinforcing.

And then I left, skipping the last keynote to get to the airport.

Good conference this year. Overall I felt that many of my choices for sessions ended up being more basic than I thought, but there is a lot of value in that. I will hopefully make the time to turn my thoughts into better blog posts.

WCQI Day 3 – Afternoon

Afternoon Keynote – Cheryl Cran on NextMapping

Future of work thought leadership….People First, Digital Second

Digital second is an interesting keynote theme (2 out of 4) and I appreciate the discussion on equitable futures and moving companies away from autocracy. Not sure anyone who speaks at large corporations is really all that committed to the concept. And I didn’t feel much more than lip service to the concept in this keynote.

Stressing reverse mentoring is good, something that all of us need to be building the tools to do better. Building it into technology integration is good.

Basic sum-up is that Change Leadership Traits are:

  • Relational vs transactional
  • Focus on ‘people’ first
  • Highly adaptable to people
  • and situations
  • Coach approach
  • Creative solutions
  • Future focused
  • Transparent
  • Empowering

In short, any talk that thinks having a clip from “In Good Company” is a good idea for teaching agile thinking is problematic.

“Storytelling: The Forgotten Change Management Tool ” by Keith Houser

Storytelling is one of the critical jobs of a quality professional, and this was a great presentation. Another flip session with pre-work that a lot of folks didn’t do.

I’m going to let Keith’s template speak for itself: https://www.eventscribe.com/2019/ASQ-World/flipSessions.asp?h=Full%20Schedule&BCFO2=FL

This was marked basic. And unlike a lot of stuff marked intermediate this felt like truly a best practice, pushing the envelope in many ways. Sure I apply these principles, but the discipline here is impressive.

Risk Management is about reducing uncertainty

Risk Management is all about eliminating surprise. So to truly start to understand our risks, we need to understand uncertainty, we need to understand the unknowns. Borrowing from Andreas Schamanek’s Taxonomies of the unknown, let’s explore a few of the various taxonomies of what is not known.

Ignorance Map

I’m pretty sure Ann Kerwin first gave us the “known unknowns” and the “unknown knowns” that people still find a source of amusement about former defense secretary Rumsfield.

KnownUnknown
KnownKnown knowns Known unknowns (conscious ignorance)
Unknown Unknown knowns (tacit knowledge) Unknown unknowns (meta-ignorance)

Understanding uncertainty involves knowledge management, this is why a rigorous knowledge management program is a prerequisite for an effective quality management system.

Risk management is then a way of teasing out the unknowns and allowing us to take action:

  1. Risk assessments mostly easily focus on the ignorance that we are aware of, the ‘known unknowns’.
  2. Risk assessments can also serve as a tool of teasing out the ‘unknown knowns’. This is why participation of subject matter experts is so critical. Through the formal methodology of the risk assessment we expose and explore tacit knowledge.
  3. The third kind of ignorance is what we do now know we do not know, the ‘unknown unknowns’. We generally become aware of unknown unknowns in two ways: hindsight (deviations) and by purposefully expanding our horizons. This expansion includes diversity and also good experimentation. It is the hardest, but perhaps, most valuable part of risk management.

Taxonomy of Ignorance

Different Kinds of Unknowns, Source: Smithson (1989, p. 9); also in Bammer et al. (2008, p. 294).

Smithson distinguishes between passive and active ignorance. Passive ignorance involves areas that we are ignorant of, whereas active ignorance refers to areas we ignore. He uses the term ‘error’ for the unknowns encompassed by passive ignorance and ‘irrelevance’ for active ignorance.

Taboo is fascinating because it gets to the heart of our cultural blindness, those parts of our organization that are closed to scrutiny.

Smithson can help us understand why risk assessments are both a qualitative and a quantitative endeavor. While dealing with the unknown is the bread and butter of statistics, only a small part of the terrain of uncertainty is covered. Under Smithson’s typology, statistics primarily operates in the area of incompleteness, across probability and some kinds of vagueness. In terms of its considerations of sampling bias, statistics also has some overlap with inaccuracy. But, as the typology shows, there is much more to unknowns than the areas statistics deals with. This is another reason that subject matter experts, and different ways of thinking is a must.

Ensuring wide and appropriate expert participation gives additional perspectives on unknowns. There is also synergies by finding unrecognized similarities between disciplines and stakeholders in the unknowns they deal with and there may be great benefit from combining forces. It is important to use these concerns to enrich thinking about unknowns, rather than ruling them out as irrelevant.

Sources of Surprise

Risk management is all about managing surprise. It helps to break surprise down to three types: risk, uncertainty and ignorance.

  • Risk: The condition in which the event, process, or outcomes and the probability that each will occur is known.
    • Issue: In reality, complete knowledge of probabilities and range of potential outcomes or consequences is not usually known and is sometimes unknowable.
  • Uncertainty: The condition in which the event, process, or outcome is known (factually or hypothetically) but the probabilities that it will occur are not known.
    • Issue: The probabilities assigned, if any, are subjective, and ways to establish reliability for different subjective probability estimates are debatable.
  • Ignorance: The condition in which the event, process, or outcome is not known or expected.
    • Issue: How can we anticipate the unknown, improve the chances of anticipating, and, therefore, improve the chances of reducing vulnerability?

Effective use of the methodology moves ideally from ignorance to eventually risk.


Ignorance

DescriptionMethods of Mitigation
Closed Ignorance
Information is available but SMEs are unwilling or unable to consider that some outcomes are unknown to them.

Self-audit process, regular third-party audits, and open and transparent system with global participation
Open Ignorance
Information is available and SMEs are willing to recognize and consider that some outcomes are unknown.
Personal
Surprise occurs because an individual SME lacks knowledge or awareness of the available information.

effective teams xxplore multiple perspectives by including a diverse set of individuals and data sources for data gathering and analysis.

Transparency in process.
Communal
Surprise occurs because a group of SMEs has only similar viewpoints represented or may be less willing to consider views outside the community.
Diversity of viewpoints and sue of tools to overcome group-think and “tribal” knowledge
Novelty
Surprise occurs because the SMEs are unable to anticipate and prepare for external shocks or internal changes in preferences, technologies, and institutions.

Simulating impacts and gaming alternative outcomes of various potentials under different conditions
(Blue Team/Read Team exercises)
Complexity
Surprise occurs when inadequate forecasting tools are used to analyze the available data, resulting in inter-relationships, hidden dependencies, feedback loops, and other negative factors that lead to inadequate or incomplete understanding of the data.
System Thinking


Track changes and interrelationships of various systems to discover potential macro-effect force changes
12-Levers


Risk Management is all about understanding surprise and working to reduce uncertainty and ignorance in order to reduce, eliminate and sometimes accept. As a methodology it is effective at avoiding surrender and denial. With innovation we can even contemplate exploitation. As organizations mature, it is important to understand these concepts and utilize them.

References

  • Gigerenzer, Gerd and Garcia-Retamero, Rocio. Cassandra’s Regret: The Psychology of Not Wanting to Know (March 2017), Psychological Review, 2017, Vol. 124, No. 2, 179–196.
  • House, Robert J., Paul J. Hanges, Mansour Javidan, Peter Dorfman, and Vipin Gupta, eds. 2004. Culture, Leadership, and Organizations: The GLOBE Study of 62 Societies. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.
  • Kerwin, A. (1993). None Too Solid: Medical Ignorance. Knowledge, 15(2), 166–185.
  • Smithson, M. (1989) Ignorance and Uncertainty: Emerging Paradigms, New York: Springer-Verlag.
  • Smithson, M. (1993) “Ignorance and Science”, Knowledge: Creation, Diffusion, Utilization, 15(2) December: 133-156.

Making Learning a Part of Everyday Work

Cultivating expertise, in short learning, is critical to building a quality culture. Yet, the urgency of work easily trumps learning. It can be difficult to carve out time for learning in the inexorable flow of daily tasks. We are all experienced with the way learning ends up being in the lowest box on the 2×2 Eisenhower matrix, or however you like to prioritize your tasks.

For learning to really happen, it must fit around and align itself to our working days. We need to build our systems so that learning is an inevitable result of doing work. There are also things we as individuals can practice to make learning happen.

What we as individuals can do

Practice mindfulness. As you go about your daily job be present and aware, using it as an opportunity to ability to learn and develop. Don’t just sit in on that audit; notice and learn the auditor’s tactics and techniques as you engage with her. Ask product managers about product features; ask experts about industry trends; ask peers for feedback on your presentation skills. These kinds of inquiries are learning experiences and most peers love to tell you what they know.

Keep a to-learn list. Keep a list of concepts, thoughts, practices, and vocabulary you want to explore and then later later explore them when you have a few moments to reflect. Try to work a few off the list, maybe during your commute or at other times when you have space to reflect.

Build learning into your calendar. Many of us schedule email time, time for project updates, time to do administrative work. Make sure you dedicate time for learning.

Share meaningfully. Share with others, but just don’t spread links. Discuss why you are sharing it, what you learned and why you think it is important. This blog is a good example of that.

What we can build into our systems

Make sure our learning and knowledge management systems are built into everything we do. Make them easy to use. Ensure content is shared internally and leads to continuous improvement.

Ensure learning is valued.

Plan for short-term wins. There is no nirvana, no perfect state. Ensure you have lots of little victories and shareable moments. Plan for this as part of your schedules and cycles.

Learning is a very effective lever for system improvement. At the very least it gives us the power to “add, change, evolve or self-organize system structure” (lever 4) and can also start giving us ways to change the paradigm (lever 2) and eventually even transcend paradigms (lever 1).

Empathy and Feedback as part of Quality Culture

Many of us have had, or given, a talk about how we can learn from children in how to communicate, whether it is being thoughtful in our relationships or learning to adapt and be resilient, or some other point.

Zach Weinersmith, Saturday Morning Breakfast Cereal

What we are really talking about how communicating empathetically is essential, including to building a quality culture and it is a key part of change management.
People need to feel respected and have a sense of self-worth in order to be motivated, confident, innovative, and committed to their work and to appropriately engage in quality culture.

I am not going to pretend to be an expert on empathy. I think it is fair to say that is still (always) one of my key development areas. That said, I think a core skill of any quality leader is that of giving feedback.

People need to feel respected and have a sense of self-worth in order to be motivated, confident, innovative, and committed to their work.

To provide good feedback focus on doing the following:

  • Focus on facts.
  • Respect and support others. Even when people aren’t performing their best, they need to feel your support and to know that they’re valued.
  • Clarify motives. Don’t jump to conclusions. Keep others’ self-esteem in mind, and you’ll be more likely to ask, “What can you tell me about this error?” instead of, “Don’t you care about quality?”

When someone has done a good job, succeeded at a task, or made a contribution, you want to enhance that person’s self-esteem. Some ways to do that are to:

  • Acknowledge good thinking and ideas. Demonstrations of appreciation encourage people to think and contribute, and they support innovation and intellectual risk taking.
  • Recognize accomplishments. People need to hear specifically what they’ve done to contribute to the team’s or organization’s success. This encourages them to sustain or exceed expectations.
  • Express and show confidence. Voicing your trust and then calling on people to show what they can do boosts their confidence and their feelings of self-worth.
  • Be specific and sincere. When you describe in detail what people do well and why it’s effective, they know exactly what you’re recognizing.

Nothing can deflate people’s confidence faster than telling them they’re responsible for something, and then doing it yourself. Conversely, when you provide support without removing responsibility, you build people’s sense of ownership of the task or assignment as well as the confidence that they can accomplish it. When you use this Key Principle, remember to:

  • Help others think and do. Provide your support in two ways: Help others think of ideas, alternatives, and solutions, then support them so that they can execute the plan.
  • Be realistic about what you can do and keep your commitments. Remember that you don’t have to do it all, but be sure to do whatever you agree to.
  • Resist the temptation to take over—keep responsibility where it belongs.

Many quality individuals tend to be action oriented and task driven, so keeping responsibility where it belongs can take resolve, even courage. You might have to overcome the protests of a team member who is reluctant to stretch into new areas or even brave objections from a key manager about your decision to support others rather than take over.

Feedback Conversation Structure

Open

In the OPEN step you ensure that the discussion has a clear purpose and that everyone understands the importance of accomplishing it.

  • Always state purpose and importance clearly in the discussion opening.
  • If you initiate the discussion, explain what you would like to accomplish and why.
  • If someone else is leading the discussion, ask questions if necessary to pinpoint the purpose and importance.
  • Cite how accomplishing the purpose would benefit others in the discussion.
  • Ask if there are any related topics to discuss.

Clarify

There are two types of information to seek and share in this step: facts and figures and issues and concerns. Both are essential to building a complete picture of the situation.

  • Facts and figures are the basic data and background information that people need to understand the situation and make informed decisions.
  • Exploring issues and concerns provides insight into potential barriers to achieving your purpose. It also helps reveal people’s feelings about the situation, which is valid, important information to gather.

Develop

When developing ideas, it’s important to ask questions and include others in the process. Most likely, you’ll have ideas about what to do, and you should share them. However, you should put equal emphasis on seeking others’ ideas. Involving people in thinking about alternative approaches can:

  • Spark their creative energy.
  • Result in more and better ideas than you alone could generate.
  • Build commitment to turning ideas into action.

Agree

It’s important that you and the people involved agree on a plan for following through on the ideas that were developed and for supporting those who will take action. During this step:

  • Specify what will be done, who will do it, and by when.
  • Agree on any follow-up actions needed to track progress in carrying out the plan.
  • Be sure to agree on needed resources or support.

Close

This is the final chance to make sure that everyone is clear on agreements and next steps and committed to following through. Closing discussions involves a summary of actions and agreements as well as a check on the person’s or team’s commitment to carrying them out.